1879 - 1958 (78 years)
||Canfield, Dorothy Frances [1, 2, 3] |
- Dorothea Frances Canfield
||, Ph. D. |
||17 Nov 1879
||Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas, USA [1, 4]
||9 Nov 1958
||Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA [1, 4, 5]
||St. James Episcopal Church Cemetery, Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA [1, 4]
||Sackett | Descendants of Capt. Richard Sackett
||3 Jun 2021 |
||Canfield, James Hulme , LL.D., b. 18 Mar 1847, Delaware County, Ohio, USA , d. 29 Mar 1909, Manhattan, New York City, New York County, New York, USA (Age 62 years) |
||Camp, Flavia A., b. 28 Jan 1844, Ridgeway, Iowa, Wisconsin, USA , d. 13 Aug 1930, Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA (Age 86 years) |
||24 Jun 1873
||Clear Lake, Cerro Gordo County, Iowa, USA 
||2 children |
|+||1. Canfield, James A., b. 28 May 1874, St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan, USA , d. 29 May 1959, Bennington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA (Age 85 years)|
|+||2. Canfield, Dorothy Frances , Ph. D., b. 17 Nov 1879, Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas, USA , d. 9 Nov 1958, Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA (Age 78 years)|
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
||Fisher, John Redwood, b. 5 Aug 1883, Hoboken, Hudson County, New Jersey, USA , d. 1 Jun 1959, Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA (Age 75 years) |
|+||1. Fisher, Sarah, b. 30 Jul 1909, Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA , d. 6 Aug 1978, Bowling Green, Wood County, Ohio, USA (Age 69 years)|
| ||2. Fisher, Capt. James Canfield , M.D., b. 22 Dec 1913, Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA , d. 31 Jan 1945, Nueva Ecija Province, Central Luzon, Philippines (Age 31 years)|
||3 Jun 2021 |
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
|Born - 17 Nov 1879 - Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas, USA
|Child - Fisher, Sarah - 30 Jul 1909 - Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA
|Child - Fisher, Capt. James Canfield , M.D. - 22 Dec 1913 - Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA
|Died - 9 Nov 1958 - Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA
|Buried - - St. James Episcopal Church Cemetery, Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA
Dorothy Canfield Fisher
Dorothy Canfield Fisher (February 17, 1879 ? November 9, 1958) was an educational reformer, social activist, and best-selling American author in the early 20th century. She strongly supported women's rights, racial equality, and lifelong education. Eleanor Roosevelt named her one of the ten most influential women in the United States. In addition to bringing the Montessori method of child-rearing to the U.S., she presided over the country's first adult education program and shaped literary tastes by serving as a member of the Book of the Month Club selection committee from 1925 to 1951.
Dorothea Frances Canfield ? named for Dorothea Brooke of the novel Middlemarch ? was born on February 17, 1879 in Lawrence, Kansas to James Hulme Canfield and Flavia Camp, an artist and writer. From 1877 to 1891 her father was a [University of Kansas professor with responsibility for various historical studies, and finally president of the National Education Association. Later he was chancellor of the University of Nebraska, president of Ohio State University, and librarian at Columbia University. Canfield Fisher is most closely associated with Vermont, where she and her mother made trips to the family home and where she spent her adult life. Vermont also served as the setting for many of her books.
In 1899 Canfield received a B.A. from Ohio State University, where she was a member of Kappa Kappa Gamma. She went on to study Romance languages at University of Paris and Columbia University (where her father was Librarian from 1899) and earned a doctoral degree from Columbia with the dissertation Corneille and Racine in English (1904). With George Rice Carpenter from Columbia she co-wrote English Rhetoric and Composition (1906). She was the first woman to receive an honorary degree from Dartmouth College and received others from the University of Nebraska, Middlebury College, Swarthmore College, Smith College, Williams College, Ohio State University, and the University of Vermont.
She married John Redwood Fisher in 1907, and they had two children, a daughter, Sally, and a son, Jimmy.
In 1911, Canfield Fisher visited the "children's houses" in Rome established by Maria Montessori. Much impressed, she joined the cause to bring the method back to the U.S., translating Montessori's book into English and writing five of her own: three nonfiction and two novels.
Another concern of Canfield Fisher was her war work. She followed her husband to France in 1916 during World War I and while raising her young children in Paris worked to establish a Braille press for blinded veterans. She also established a convalescent home for refugee French children from the invaded areas; continuing her relief work after the war, she earned citations of appreciation from Eleanor Roosevelt, Madame Chiang Kai-shek, and the government of Denmark.
Canfield Fisher died at the age of 79 in Arlington, Vermont in 1958.
Canfield Fisher engaged in social activism in many aspects of education and politics. She managed the first adult education program in the U.S. She did war-relief work in 1917 in France, establishing the Bidart Home for Children for refugees and organizing an effort to print books in Braille for blinded combat veterans. In 1919, she was appointed to the State Board of Education of Vermont to help improve rural public education. She spent years promoting education and rehabilitation/reform in prisons, especially women's prisons.
After the war, she was the head of the U.S. committee that led to the pardoning of conscientious objectors in 1921, and sponsored financial and emigration assistance to Jewish educators, professionals, and intellectuals.
After her son was killed in World War II, she arranged a fellowship at Harvard Medical School for the two Philippine surgeons who tried to save his life.
In 2017, an Abenaki educator lobbied the Vermont Department of Libraries to pull Fisher's name from the children's literature award created in the state over half a century ago to honor her. Judy Dow claimed that Fisher stereotyped French Canadians and Native Americans in her works of fiction, and that she may have been part of the eugenics movement that promoted cleansing Vermont of people considered genetically less desirable in the 1920s and 1930s. Other voices discussed putting Fisher's characterizations in context of the times in which she lived. Yet others suggested that because Fisher's works are no longer widely read nor is her name well recognized, perhaps it has become time to retire the title of the literature award. No direct connection with the eugenics movement has been established. The Vermont State Board of Libraries recommended dropping her name from the award on grounds that "it was no longer relevant to today's young people". The state librarian announced in 2019 that the award would receive a new name for 2020.
Canfield Fisher and Willa Cather's decades-long relationship intensely revolved around their writing. Their letters, from 1899 to 1947, reveal a lasting and complicated friendship.
Cather wrote a short story that may have satirized Canfield's mother, called "Flavia and Her Artists"?sparking ten years of interrupted friendship between Canfield Fisher and Cather. Other writers who corresponded with Canfield Fisher included Henry Seidel Canby, Richard Wright, Heywood Broun, Witter Bynner, Isak Dinesen, and Robert Frost.
Canfield Fisher worked with the following organizations over the course of her life.
- Adult Education Association
- American Youth Commission of the American Council of Education, 1936?1940
- Book of the Month Club Committee of Selection, 1926 until 1951
- Honorary Committee of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1935
- The Lighthouse Organization, 1917National Institute of Arts and Letters, 1931
- Vermont Board of Education, 1921
Sally was born in 1909. When her mother died in 1958, Mrs. John Paul Scott lived in Bar Harbor, Maine and had written 18 children's books as Sally Scott.[a] Canfield Fisher's granddaughter Vivian Scott was also writing children's books and at least one had been published, evidently.[a]
James (Jimmy) was born in 1913 and became a surgeon and captain in the U.S. Army during World War II. He served with the Alamo Scouts for three months at the end of 1944, following which he was attached to a Ranger unit which carried out the raid to free POWs imprisoned at Cabanatuan in the Philippines.
The Raid at Cabanatuan was a great success, with the Rangers suffering only two fatalities. Captain Fisher was one, mortally wounded by a mortar shell. As he lay dying the next day, his last words were "Did we get them all out?" He died on Luzon, January 31, 1945.
The Dorothy Canfield Fisher Children's Book Award is an award for new American children's books whose winner is chosen by the vote of child readers.
A dormitory at Goddard College in Plainfield, Vermont is named for Fisher.
Canfield Fisher spoke five languages fluently, and in addition to writing novels, short stories, memoirs, and educational works, she wrote extensively as a literary critic and translator. For tax purposes, her novels were written as "Canfield," her non-fiction as "Fisher."
Her best-known work today is probably Understood Betsy, a children's book about a little orphaned girl who is sent to live with her cousins in Vermont. Although the book can be read purely for pleasure, it also describes a schoolhouse which is run much in the style of the Montessori method. Another of her books, The Home-maker, was reprinted by Anita Miller's Academy Chicago Publishers calling it "way ahead of its time." In all, she wrote 22 novels and 18 works of non-fiction.
William Lyon Phelps said "All her novels are autobiographical, being written exclusively out of her own experience and observation."
Gunhild (1907) (contrasting Norwegian and American values)
The Squirrel-Cage (1912) (the first of her treatments of marriage)
The Bent Twig (1915)
The Real Motive (1916).
Fellow Captains (1916) (with Sarah N. Cleghorn)
Understood Betsy (1917)
Home Fires in France (1918)
The Day of Glory (1919)
The Brimming Cup (1919)
The Home-Maker (1924) (reprinted by [Persephone Books in 1999)
Her Son's Wife (1926)
The Deepening Stream (1930)
Seasoned Timber (1939)
Short story collections
Hillsboro People (1915)
The Real Motive (1916)
Raw Material (1923)
Made-to-Order Stories (1925)
Four Square (1949)
The Bedquilt and Other Stories (1997)
Corneille and Racine in England (1904) (dissertation)
English Rhetoric and Composition (1906) ? with G.R. Carpenter
What Shall We Do Now? (with others) (1906)
A Montessori Mother (1912)
A Montessori Manual (1913)
Mothers and Children (1914)
Life of Christ 1923 (by Giovanni Papini, freely trans. from the Italian by Dorothy Canfield Fisher)
Why Stop Learning? (1927)
Work: What It Has Meant to Men through the Ages (1931) (by Adriano Tilgher, trans. from the Italian by Dorothy Canfield Fisher.
Tourists Accommodated 1932
Nothing Ever Happens and How It Does 1940. (with Sarah N. Cleghorn)
Tell Me a Story 1940
"Hiker's Philosophy" chapter of Footpath in the Wilderness 1941. (with W. Storrs, James P. Taylor, Charles E. Crane, Wallace Cady, George D. Aiken, Herbert Wheaton Congdon, Robert C. Anderson, and Richard L. Brown)
Our Young Folks 1943
American Portraits 1946
Paul Revere and the Minute Men 1950
Our Independence and the Constitution 1950
A Fair World for All 1952
Vermont Tradition 1953
Memories of Arlington, Vermont 1957
And Long Remember 1959
See Sally Scott at Library of Congress Authorities, with 25 catalog records. Unfortunately Sally Scott is not identified, or authorized in the sense of authority control, by the Library. The name is partly undifferentiated; the 25 hits may be records of works created by more than one Sally Scott. Evidently they are 21 US publications 1943?1963 created by writer Sally Scott and an illustrator (16 with Beth Krush); 4 UK publications 1981?1987 created by writer-illustrator Sally Scott, one with another writer.
See also Works by or about Sally Scott in libraries (WorldCat catalog). Evidently the first-listed work is by another Sally Scott.
Vivian Scott is another undifferentiated name, credited by 3 records in the catalog as of February 2015. One of them is for a children's picture book presumably created by Fisher's daughter Vivian Scott: The Potted Witch (Harcourt, 1957).
March 29, 2016, by Vivian Scott Hixson, daughter of Sarah (Sally) Fisher Scott and John Paul Scott. Vivian Scott's book The Potted Witch was published (as noted) under her maiden name. After this, in 1995, The University of Missouri Press published a book of her cartoons (most of them previously published in The Chronicle of Higher Education), titled "He Looks Too Happy to be an Assistant Professor"; this book was published under the name Vivian Scott Hixson. In 2014, she published another collection of cartoons with Ex Libris, called "They Look Too Happy to be Temporary Adjunct Assistant Professors."
Wright, Elizabeth J (2007). "Home Economics: Children, Consumption, and Montessori Education in Dorothy Canfield Fisher's Understood Betsy". Children's Literature Association Quarterly. 32 (3): 217?230. doi:10.1353/chq.2007.0045.
Ehrhardt, Julia (2004), "Tourists accommodated, with reservations", Writers of Conviction : The Personal Politics of Zona Gale, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, Rose Wilder Lane, and Josephine Herbst, Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press
"Dorothy Canfield Collection". Finding Aids. University of Vermont Libraries. 1998. Retrieved 2012-12-05.
"Major Authors and Illustrators for Children and Young Adults". Biography in Context. Gale. 2002. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
"James Hulme Canfield Papers". Finding Aids. University of Vermont Libraries. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
The Key of Kappa Kappa Gamma, February 1917.
"Biography". The Dorothy Canfield Fisher Children's Book Award. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
Fisher, Dorothy Canfield; Fadiman, Clifton (1993). Keeping Fires Night and Day: Selected Letters of Dorothy Canfield Fisher. University of Missouri Press. pp. 1?22. ISBN 9780826208842. "refugee."
Bennett, Scott H. (2003). "Free American Political Prisoners': Pacifist Activism and Civil Liberties, 1945-48". Journal of Peace Research. 40 (4): 413?433. doi:10.1177/00223433030404004. JSTOR 3648291.
Walsh, Molly. "Vermont Considers Dumping Dorothy Canfield Fisher Over Ties to Eugenics Movement". Seven Days. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
Neubauer, Kelsey (2018-02-11). "State librarian mum on dropping Dorothy Canfield Fisher from award". VTDigger. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
Walsh, Molly. "Dorothy Canfield Fisher Book Award to Be Renamed". Seven Days. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
Madigan, Mark J. (1990). "Willa Cather and Dorothy Canfield Fisher: Rift, Reconciliation, and One of Ours". Cather Studies. 1.
Rosowski, Susan J. (1985). "Prototypes for Willa Cather's "Flavia and Her Artists": the Canfield Connection". American Notes & Queries. 23: 143?145. Archived from the original on 2019-02-25. Retrieved 2012-12-05.
"Dorothy Canfield Fisher Dies in Vermont at 79". The Boston Globe. November 10, 1958.
Bang-Jensen, Valerie (2010). "A Children's Choice Program: Insights into Book Selection, Social Relationships, and Reader Identity". Language Arts. 87 (3): 169?176. JSTOR 41804686.
Scott, Vivian (1957). The Potted Witch: Or a Girl's Best Friend is Her Mother. Harcourt, Brace & Company.
Elizabeth Yates' The Lady from Vermont: Dorothy Canfield Fisher's Life and World. (Brattleboro: Stephen Greene Press, 1971), originally published by E.P. Dutton and Co. in 1958 as Pebble in a Pool.
Dorothy Canfield Fisher ? A Biography, by Professor Ida H. Washington (The New England Press, Inc., Shelburne, Vermont 1982)
Madigan, Mark (1993). Keeping Fires Night and Day: Selected Letters of Dorothy Canfield Fisher. University of Missouri.
Lang, Henry; Meath-Lang, Bonnie (1995). Deaf Persons in the Arts and Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Press. pp. 118?120
- An audio recording is available at Vermont History: https://vermonthistory.org/dorothy-canfield-fisher-1907
- [S1546] Vermont, U.S., Death Records, 1909-2008, (Ancestry.com) (Reliability: 3), 3 Jun 2021.
Name: Dorothy Canfield Fisher
[Dorothy Canfield Canfield]
Birth Date: 17 Nov 1879
Birth Place: Lawrence, Kansas, USA
Residence Place: Arlington, Vermont, USA
Veteran: Not applicable
Death Date: 9 Nov 1958
Death Place: Arlington, Bennington, Vermont, USA
Cause of Death: Coronary Thrombus
Date Filed: 11 Nov 1958
Father: James Hulme Canfield
Mother: Flavie Canfield
Spouse: John R Fisher
Researched by Ted Smith
- [S740] Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/ (Reliability: 2), 3 Jun 2021.
Dorothy Canfield Fisher (February 17, 1879 ? November 9, 1958) was an educational reformer, social activist, and best-selling American author in the early 20th century . . .
Researched by Ted Smith
- [S1545] Vermont, U.S., Birth Records, 1909-2008, (Ancestry.com) (Reliability: 3), 3 Jun 2021.
Name: Sarah Fisher
Birth Date: 30 Jul 1909
Birth Place: Bennington, Vermont, USA, Arlington
Father: John Redwood Fisher
Mother: Dorothea Frances Fisher
Researched by Ted Smith
- [S543] Find A Grave (www.findagrave.com) (Reliability: 2), 3 Jun 2021.
Memorial ID 12784218
Dorothy Frances Canfield Fisher
Birth 17 Feb 1879
Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas, USA
Death 9 Nov 1958 (aged 79)
Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA
Saint James Episcopal Church Cemetery
Arlington, Bennington County, Vermont, USA
Dorothy Canfield Fisher was a best selling author of children's books in the early 1900's. She was named by Eleanor Roosevelt as one of the ten most influential women in the United States. She presided over the country's first adult education program. She brought the Montessori method of child rearing to the United States. She was one of the first women of her generation to receive a Doctoral degree in 1904. During World War I Dorothy went to France and worked with blinded soldiers. The Dorothy Canfield Fisher Children's Book Award is named for her. Her father James Hulme Canfield was a professor and also President of Ohio University, her mother Flavia Camp was an artist and writer. As a child she would visit her grandfather Rev. Eli H. Canfield in Arlington, Vermont, she spent her adult life in Arlington.
From the Bennington Evening Banner November 14, 1958
The Arlington Eagle (The School Section of the paper)
Beloved Arlingtonian: Dorothy Canfield Fisher
Last Sunday morning the community of Arlington lost a faithful friend and benefactor. Dorothy Canfield Fisher. Her loss will be felt by people throughout the world and nowhere will it be felt more deeply than Arlington High School.
Education and young people were two of her greatest interests. She believed that the hope for a peaceful world rested upon a well informed younger generation.
To further this cause she made many gifts to the school such as the land for the atheletic field, a part of which became the site of the New Fisher Elementary School name in honor of Mr. and Mrs. Fisher. Other gifts include books for the school library and contributions to many school drives both big and small, a recnet one being the new bleachers in the gymnasium. But far surpassing any material assistance she gave the school as a whole was her unfailing gift of encouragement and counsel to countless students. She was always willing to help any student with words of encouragement, letters of recommendation, and friendly advice.
A gesture that typifies her warm personality was her custom of attending the first PTA meeting of the school year and welcoming the new teachers in Arlington. Many young teachers will remember her cordial words of greeting.
As a previous member of the Arlington School Board and the State Board of Education, she was well aware of school problems and always had a keen interest in any school activity large and small.
Dorothy Canfield Fisher had the greatest faith in Arlington and its young people. The success of any Arlington student will reflect, in some measure, that faith.
From The Times Record (Troy, New York) November 10, 1958
Dorothy C. Fisher, Noted Novelist, Dies In Vermont
Arlington, Vt.(AP)- Dorothy Canfield Fisher, a quiet motherly-looking woman who forged a remarkable career as novelist, scholar, translator and educator, died yesterday amid the Vermont hills she loved. She was 79.
She became famous for the novels she wrote before World War I and in the years shortly after - "The Squirrel Cage", "The Bent Twig" and "The Deepening Stream" outstanding among them. In recent years she became best known for her articles and non-fiction, and as a judge on the Book of the Month Club selection board.
A native of Lawrence, Kan., she adopted Vermont as her favorite state and her recent book "Vermont Tradition" was an eloquent statement of the philosophy and character of the state's ruggedly independent people.
One of her most recent articles told the story of a Vermont town meeting in which the voters, faced with limited local funds chose to erect a school instead of a much desired bridge.
The daughter of a prominent educator, James Hulme Canfield and of Flavia (Camp) Canfield, an artist, she had some early schooling in France, spoke French fluently and worked there during and after World War I helping refugee children. She often said she loved Vermont and France best of all places in the world.
After receiving a bachelor's degree from Ohio State University and studying at the Sorbonne in Paris, she received a Ph.D. in French from Columbia University in 1905. She was preparing to be a language teacher when, in 1907, she married James Redwood Fisher.
In education, she achieved note with her books about the pioneering work of the Italian Dr. Maria Montessori. Accomplished in Italian, she also translated Giovanni Papini's widely read "Life Of Christ".
After 1923, she and her husband made their home in Arlington in a remodeled farmhouse that had once belonged to her Vermont ancestors.
In all she wrote 35 books. Many of them were translated for distribution abroad.
Researched by Ted Smith
- [S1619] Newspapers.com (Reliability: 3), 3 Jun 2021.
Globe-Gazette (Mason City, Iowa), 18 Nov 1958, Page 17
Mrs. Fisher, Author, Was Lake Visitor
CLEAR LAKE -- The death of Dorothy Canfield Fisher, noted author and magazine writer, brings to Clear Lakers minds Mrs. Fisher's many visits to Clear Lake as a girl.
She visited her aunt, Delia Camp Fletcher, who lived in the old Fletcher homestead. This home at 113 N. 3rd St. is still in use and has been remodelled (sic) into the Avalon Apartments.
John F. Palmeter, 308 3rd Ave. N., recalls these visits. His cousin, Robert Fletcher, now of Butte, Mont., was a cousin of Dorothy Canfield. Dorothy made these annual visits to Clear Lake with her mother, Flavia Camp Canfield, a sister of Delia Camp Fletcher.
Mrs. Fisher, 79, died Nov. 9 at her Arlington, Vt., home. In all, she wrote 35 books, becoming famous for the novels she wrote before World War I and the years shortly after -- including "The Squirrel Cage," "The Bent Twig," "The [Brimming] Cup" and "The Deepening Stream."
In recent years Mrs. Fisher was noted particularly for her magazine articles, many of which were in strong defense of the simpler things of life and nonfiction books. Born in Lawrence, Kan., she was graduated from Ohio State University of which her father, James Canfield, was president.
Back in Mrs. Fisher's ancestry is the Rev. A. S. Allen, who started the First Congregational Church in Clear Lake in 1875. Father Allen, as he was called, was married to Mrs. Fisher's grandmother.
Mrs. Fisher is survived by her husband, James Redwood Fisher, and a daughter, Mrs. John Paul Scott, Bar Harbor, Me., also a novelist.
Transcribed by Ted Smith
- [S1499] Iowa, U.S., Select Marriages Index, 1758-1996, (Ancestry.com) (Reliability: 3), 3 Jun 2021.
Name: Flavia A. Camp
Marriage Date: 24 Jun 1873
Marriage Place: Clear Lake
Spouse: James H. Canfield
FHL Film Number: 1481034
Reference ID: 2:3WBM2ZX
Researched by Ted Smith